Top 15 Types Of Falcons Birds (with Photos)

Falcons, with their impressive speed and agility, have always captivated the imagination of bird enthusiasts and researchers alike. From the graceful Peregrine Falcon to the elusive Saker Falcon, these birds of prey exhibit a diverse range of characteristics that make them a fascinating subject of study.

In this discussion, we will explore the various types of falcons, each with its unique traits and habitats, shedding light on their remarkable adaptations and highlighting the critical role they play in maintaining ecological balance.

So, join me as we embark on a journey through the world of falcons, uncovering the secrets of these magnificent birds and unraveling the mysteries that surround them.

Peregrine Falcon

The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) is a species of bird of prey that is widely recognized for its exceptional speed and agility in flight. This magnificent bird is known for its ability to reach speeds of up to 240 miles per hour (386 kilometers per hour) during its hunting dives, making it the fastest animal in the world.

Peregrine falcons are found on every continent except Antarctica and are known for their stunning hunting techniques. They employ a hunting strategy known as the ‘stoop,’ where they climb to great heights before rapidly descending to strike their prey in mid-air. This technique allows them to surprise their prey and catch it off guard.

Peregrine falcon conservation efforts have been successful in recent years, with their populations rebounding after facing significant decline due to the use of pesticides. These efforts have included habitat preservation, captive breeding programs, and the banning of certain pesticides.

The remarkable hunting techniques and successful conservation efforts of the Peregrine Falcon make it a fascinating and inspiring species to study and protect.


 the essence of a Kestrel in flight; its slender body, long wings, and distinctive tail feathers spread wide as it hovers mid-air, eyes keenly focused on its prey below

The Kestrel, also known as the Eurasian Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), is a small falcon species that is widely distributed across Europe, Asia, and Africa. Kestrels are typically found in a variety of habitats, including open fields, grasslands, forests, and urban areas. They have adapted well to human-altered landscapes, often nesting in buildings and hunting in agricultural fields.

Feeding primarily on small mammals, kestrels are skilled hunters that use their keen eyesight to locate prey from a high perch. They also eat birds, insects, and occasionally reptiles. Kestrels are known for their ability to hover in mid-air, allowing them to spot prey on the ground before swooping down to catch it.

Despite their wide distribution, kestrels face various threats to their populations. Habitat loss due to urbanization and agricultural intensification is a significant concern. Pesticide use also poses a threat as it can reduce the availability of prey by affecting their populations. Additionally, kestrels may suffer from collisions with vehicles and structures, as well as persecution by humans.

Conservation efforts, such as the protection of nesting sites and the promotion of sustainable farming practices, are essential for the long-term survival of kestrels.


An image capturing the majestic Merlin falcon in flight, its sleek body adorned in striking blue-gray feathers with bold black streaks

Continuing our exploration of falcon species, let us now turn our attention to the fascinating bird known as the Merlin. The Merlin (Falco columbarius) is a small falcon that belongs to the family Falconidae. This bird is widely distributed across North America, Europe, and Asia, and is known for its remarkable hunting abilities.

Merlins are known for their agile flight and swift hunting techniques. They primarily prey on small birds, capturing them in mid-air or chasing them down. Their hunting strategies include low-level flight, sudden bursts of speed, and intricate aerial maneuvers. This enables them to catch their prey with precision and efficiency.

In terms of conservation, the Merlin population remains stable in most of its range. However, some localized declines have been observed due to habitat loss and fragmentation. Efforts are being made to protect and conserve the Merlin’s habitats, particularly in areas where it is considered a threatened species.

To understand more about the Merlin, take a look at the table below, which provides a brief overview of its key characteristics:

Characteristics Description
Scientific Name Falco columbarius
Average Length 9-12 inches
Wingspan 20-26 inches
Habitat Open country, forests, tundra
Conservation Status Least Concern

The Merlin is a remarkable falcon species, known for its swift hunting techniques and adaptability to various habitats. Conservation efforts are crucial in ensuring the survival of this fascinating bird.


An image showcasing the majestic Gyrfalcon in flight, its large size and powerful wingspan evident

Having explored the Merlin, we now turn our attention to the Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), a majestic falcon species known for its impressive size and hunting prowess.

The Gyrfalcon is the largest falcon in the world, with females reaching up to 61 centimeters in length. These birds are native to the Arctic regions of North America, Europe, and Asia.

Gyrfalcons are exceptional hunters and have adapted various hunting techniques to catch their prey. They are known for their high-speed stoop, where they dive from great heights to surprise their prey. They also employ a strategy called ‘contour-hunting,’ where they fly low over the ground, using the terrain to their advantage.

Despite their hunting skills, Gyrfalcons face conservation challenges due to habitat loss and climate change. They are listed as a species of least concern, but efforts are being made to monitor and protect their populations.

Saker Falcon

An image showcasing the regal Saker Falcon in flight, capturing its impressive wingspan, with its sleek, brown plumage glistening under the golden sunlight against a backdrop of rugged mountain peaks

Native to a vast range spanning from Eastern Europe to Central Asia, the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) is a formidable bird of prey admired for its impressive speed and hunting abilities. Saker falcons are known for their distinctive appearance, with a pale head and body, dark brown wings, and a yellow beak and legs.

These birds primarily inhabit open grasslands, steppes, and deserts, where they build their nests on cliffs or in tall trees. Saker falcons are monogamous and breed during the spring and summer months. They construct large nests made of twigs and grass, where the female lays a clutch of 3-5 eggs.

Conservation efforts for Saker falcons have been implemented due to declining populations caused by habitat loss, illegal hunting, and capture for falconry. These efforts involve protecting nesting sites, regulating hunting practices, and promoting captive breeding programs to support population recovery.

Prairie Falcon

An image showcasing the majestic Prairie Falcon in its natural habitat, capturing its distinctive features: a medium-sized raptor with a slate-gray back, pale underparts with dark streaks, and striking yellow legs and feet

The Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus) is a species of falcon that is widely distributed across the western regions of North America. Known for its striking appearance and impressive aerial abilities, the Prairie Falcon has captured the interest of conservationists and bird enthusiasts alike.

Conservation efforts have been implemented to protect and preserve this species, as habitat loss, disturbance, and pesticide exposure pose significant threats to its population.

The Prairie Falcon is an efficient hunter, relying primarily on its exceptional speed and agility to catch its prey. It typically hunts small to medium-sized birds, rodents, and insects, but has also been known to target larger prey such as rabbits and squirrels. Its hunting behavior is characterized by high-speed chases and sudden stoops, allowing it to surprise and capture its prey with precision.

Lanner Falcon

An image capturing the majestic Lanner Falcon in flight, showcasing its sleek, tapered wings and distinctive reddish-brown plumage, with keen eyes fixed on its prey, exuding both power and grace

The Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus) is a prominent species of falcon found across various regions of Africa, Europe, and parts of the Middle East. Known for its striking appearance and powerful flight, the Lanner Falcon is a highly adaptable bird that can thrive in a range of habitats, including deserts, grasslands, and open woodlands.

These falcons are known for their agile hunting techniques, often pursuing their prey in swift, acrobatic flights. They primarily feed on small to medium-sized birds and mammals.

Conservation efforts for the Lanner Falcon have been focused on protecting its natural habitats and ensuring sustainable populations. Despite facing some threats such as habitat loss and illegal hunting, the Lanner Falcon is considered to have a stable population status.

Various organizations and initiatives are working towards monitoring their populations and implementing conservation measures to ensure their long-term survival. Continued research and conservation efforts are crucial in maintaining the population and habitat of the Lanner Falcon.

Barbary Falcon

An image capturing the majestic Barbary Falcon soaring effortlessly against the cloud-kissed sky, displaying its striking plumage of slate-gray and chestnut hues, adorned with distinct black facial markings and vibrant yellow talons

Continuing our exploration of falcon species, let us now shift our focus to the Barbary Falcon (Falco pelegrinoides), a remarkable avian predator found in select regions of North Africa and the Canary Islands. This species is known for its impressive hunting techniques and has been the subject of conservation efforts due to its declining population.

The Barbary Falcon is a medium-sized bird with a wingspan of around 90 centimeters. It has a distinctive appearance, with a dark brown back, white underparts, and a black head. This falcon primarily feeds on small birds, capturing them in mid-air with its incredible aerial prowess.

Conservation efforts for the Barbary Falcon have been initiated to protect its habitat and promote sustainable hunting practices. These efforts focus on raising awareness among local communities, implementing regulations on hunting, and establishing protected areas for the species.


Characteristic Description
Wingspan Around 90cm
Coloration Dark brown back, white underparts, black head
Hunting Technique Captures small birds in mid-air
Conservation Efforts Focus on habitat protection and sustainable hunting practices

The Barbary Falcon’s unique hunting techniques and ongoing conservation efforts make it a fascinating species to study and protect. By understanding its behavior and implementing measures to safeguard its habitat, we can ensure the survival of this remarkable avian predator.

Aplomado Falcon

An image capturing the elegance of an Aplomado Falcon in flight, displaying its distinct slender body, long tail, and unique coloration with a slate-gray crown, white face, and rufous chest

Aplomado Falcons (Falco femoralis) are a species of falcon known for their elegant appearance and agile flying abilities. These falcons have a slender body, long wings, and a distinctive mustache-like black stripe on their face.

Aplomado Falcons are found in various habitats including grasslands, savannas, and deserts across the Americas. They are known for their unique hunting behavior, which involves using their speed and agility to catch prey on the wing. Aplomado Falcons primarily feed on small birds, insects, and small mammals.

Unfortunately, these falcons have faced significant population declines due to habitat loss, pesticide use, and hunting. As a result, conservation efforts have been implemented to protect and restore their habitats, as well as to monitor their populations and raise awareness about their importance in the ecosystem.

Red-footed Falcon

An image capturing the elegance of a Red-footed Falcon in flight

The Red-footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus) is a species of falcon known for its distinct red-tinged plumage and remarkable migratory patterns. These small raptors are found in Europe and Asia, breeding in open habitats such as steppes, meadows, and agricultural fields. They have a preference for areas with scattered trees, which they use for perching and nesting.

The diet of the Red-footed Falcon primarily consists of insects, especially large flying insects like dragonflies, beetles, and grasshoppers. They are also known to feed on small birds, rodents, and occasionally bats. During migration, these falcons undertake long journeys, traveling from their breeding grounds in Europe and Asia to their wintering grounds in Sub-Saharan Africa. They usually migrate in large flocks, using thermals and updrafts to aid their flight.

The Red-footed Falcon is a fascinating species, showcasing unique plumage, specific habitat preferences, and impressive migratory behavior. Understanding their diet, habitat requirements, and migration patterns is crucial for their conservation and management.

Eleonora’s Falcon

An image that captures the breathtaking agility of Eleonora's Falcon in flight, showcasing its slender body and long, pointed wings gliding effortlessly through the sky, as it hunts its prey with precision and speed

Eleonora’s Falcon (Falco eleonorae) is a species of falcon known for its distinctive appearance and unique breeding behavior. These falcons are medium-sized birds, with a wingspan of about 90-100 cm and a body length of 35-40 cm. They have long, pointed wings and a slim, streamlined body, which enables them to be excellent aerial hunters.

One of the remarkable features of Eleonora’s Falcons is their migration patterns. They breed in the Mediterranean region during the summer months and then undertake a long-distance migration to wintering grounds in Madagascar and eastern Africa. This migration can cover thousands of kilometers and requires the falcons to navigate across vast expanses of open ocean.

In terms of hunting techniques, Eleonora’s Falcons are known for their specialized feeding behavior. They are primarily insectivorous and specialize in catching migratory birds during their own migration. These falcons have been observed perching on elevated positions, such as cliffs or trees, and then launching themselves into the air to catch their prey in mid-flight. They are highly skilled aerial hunters, capable of agile maneuvers and precise strikes.

Amur Falcon

An image showcasing the majestic Amur Falcon in its natural habitat

Continuing the discussion on falcon species, the Amur Falcon (Falco amurensis) stands out for its unique characteristics and fascinating behavior.

The Amur Falcon is a small migratory bird that breeds in Siberia and northeastern China and winters in southern Africa. It has a distinctive appearance, with the male sporting a dark gray upper body and a reddish-brown underbody, while the female has a brown upper body and white underparts.

These falcons are known for their remarkable long-distance migration, covering up to 20,000 kilometers each year. During their migration, they form large flocks and undertake a non-stop flight across the Indian Ocean, an incredible feat of endurance.

The Amur Falcon primarily inhabits open grasslands, wetlands, and agricultural areas. They are insectivorous, feeding on a variety of insects, including dragonflies, termites, and locusts. They are also known to catch small birds in flight.

Unfortunately, the Amur Falcon population has faced significant threats due to hunting and habitat loss. However, conservation efforts have been implemented to protect this species. Awareness campaigns, community engagement, and the establishment of protected areas have helped conserve their habitat and reduce hunting activities.

Efforts to conserve the Amur Falcon population have shown positive results, with their numbers gradually increasing. Ongoing research and conservation initiatives are crucial in ensuring the long-term survival of this magnificent falcon species.

Orange-breasted Falcon

An image capturing the majestic Orange-breasted Falcon mid-flight, its vibrant orange chest contrasting against a striking blue sky

One of the fascinating falcon species is the Orange-breasted Falcon (Falco deiroleucus), known for its vibrant plumage and unique hunting behavior.

The orange-breasted falcon is a medium-sized bird with a length of about 35-41 centimeters and a wingspan of approximately 70-80 centimeters. It has a distinctive bright orange chest and belly, contrasting with its dark gray or blackish head, back, and wings.

This species is mainly found in the tropical rainforests of Central and South America, particularly in Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and Brazil. They prefer nesting in high cliffs and trees near water bodies.

Conservation efforts for orange-breasted falcons include protecting their habitat from deforestation and illegal hunting. Organizations such as the Peregrine Fund are actively involved in monitoring and researching these birds, as well as implementing conservation strategies to ensure their survival in the wild.

Australian Hobby

An image showcasing the majestic Australian Hobby falcon in flight, its sleek body adorned with slate-grey plumage and striking reddish-brown underparts

Another falcon species that exhibits unique characteristics and behaviors is the Australian Hobby (Falco longipennis), found in the vast landscapes of Australia and parts of Southeast Asia. The Australian Hobby is a small falcon, measuring around 30-36 centimeters in length, with a wingspan of approximately 60-70 centimeters. It has a distinctive dark slate-gray plumage, with a white underbelly and reddish-orange thighs.

The Australian Hobby is known for its remarkable behavioral adaptations. It is an agile and acrobatic flyer, capable of swift and precise aerial maneuvers, often seen chasing after its prey in mid-air. Its hunting strategy primarily consists of capturing small birds, insects, and bats, which it catches in flight.

In terms of habitat and distribution, the Australian Hobby is commonly found in open woodlands, coastal regions, and grasslands. It prefers areas with tall trees and open spaces, providing suitable perching and hunting opportunities. This species can be spotted across a vast range, including mainland Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea, and parts of Southeast Asia.

White-rumped Falcon

An image capturing the majestic White-rumped Falcon in flight, showcasing its distinct white plumage with dark streaks, sharp curved beak, and powerful wingspan, hovering against a clear blue sky

The White-rumped Falcon (Falco vespertinus) is a species of falcon known for its distinctive white plumage on its rump. This medium-sized falcon is found across a vast range, extending from Eastern Europe and Central Asia to Southeast Asia.

It primarily inhabits open woodlands, forests, and steppe habitats, often near wetlands or water bodies. During the breeding season, the White-rumped Falcon constructs its nest on cliffs or in the hollows of trees. It lays a clutch of 3-5 eggs and both parents take turns incubating them for about 30 days. The chicks fledge after 28-30 days.

Unfortunately, the White-rumped Falcon is currently listed as globally endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Rapid habitat loss, hunting, and pesticide use are the primary threats to its survival. Conservation efforts are crucial to ensure the survival of this beautiful and vulnerable species.

About the author

I'm Gulshan, a passionate pet enthusiast. Dive into my world where I share tips, stories, and snapshots of my animal adventures. Here, pets are more than just animals; they're heartbeats that enrich our lives. Join our journey!