Top 15 Types Of Falcon Birds (with Photos)

Falconry has been a revered practice for centuries, captivating the minds of both enthusiasts and researchers alike. Within this ancient tradition lies a diverse array of falcon birds, each possessing their own unique characteristics and captivating allure.

From the awe-inspiring speed and agility of the Peregrine Falcon to the majestic grace of the Gyrfalcon, the world of falconry is a treasure trove waiting to be explored. But it doesn't end there. What other falcon species exist, and what makes them so fascinating?

Join us on this journey as we uncover the secrets and beauty of these magnificent creatures, igniting a passion that will leave you eager to uncover more.

Peregrine Falcon

fast flying predator with sharp vision

The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) is a widely recognized and revered bird of prey known for its exceptional speed and aerial hunting prowess. With a wingspan of up to 1.1 meters and a body length of about 40 centimeters, this species is perfectly adapted for capturing prey in mid-air. Peregrine falcons are known to reach speeds of over 240 miles per hour (386 kilometers per hour) during their hunting dives, or stoops, making them the fastest birds in the world. They employ a unique hunting technique called the 'stoop and strike,' where they soar high above their prey before diving steeply to strike with their talons.

Conservation efforts for the peregrine falcon have been successful in recent decades. Due to the widespread use of pesticides like DDT in the mid-20th century, peregrine falcon populations experienced a significant decline. However, after the banning of DDT and the implementation of conservation measures, including captive breeding and reintroduction programs, the peregrine falcon made a remarkable recovery.

Today, their populations have rebounded, and they can be found in various habitats across the globe, from coastal cliffs to urban skyscrapers. These conservation efforts have not only protected a magnificent species but also helped to maintain the balance of ecosystems where the peregrine falcon plays a crucial role as a top predator.


majestic arctic bird of prey

With the peregrine falcon's exceptional hunting capabilities and successful conservation efforts in mind, we now turn our attention to the Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), another formidable bird of prey known for its adaptability and widespread distribution.

The Gyrfalcon is the largest falcon species, with individuals reaching up to 60 centimeters in length. They inhabit the Arctic and subarctic regions, where they have adapted to survive in harsh climates.

Gyrfalcons possess a diverse hunting behavior, preying on a variety of birds, mammals, and even fish. They are known for their impressive aerial hunting techniques, using their speed and agility to chase down their prey.

Despite their adaptability, the Gyrfalcon faces conservation challenges due to habitat loss and climate change. Conservation efforts aim to protect their nesting sites and raise awareness about their importance in maintaining ecological balance in their habitats.


fast agile bird of prey

Adapted to diverse habitats and renowned for its hovering hunting technique, the Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is a small but formidable falcon species. Found in Europe, Asia, and Africa, the Kestrel is known for its ability to hover in mid-air while scanning the ground for prey. It has a distinctive appearance, with a reddish-brown back and tail, and a pale underside with black spots. Conservation efforts have been focused on protecting the Kestrel's habitats, as loss of suitable nesting sites and pesticide use have negatively impacted their populations. These efforts have included creating protected areas and implementing measures to reduce pesticide use. In terms of hunting techniques, the Kestrel primarily feeds on small mammals, birds, and insects. It hunts by hovering in the air before diving down to capture its prey with its sharp talons. The Kestrel's unique hunting style and adaptability make it an important and fascinating species to study and conserve.

Size Small
Habitat Diverse habitats
Conservation status Least Concern

Saker Falcon

fast flying bird of prey

Known for its impressive speed and aerial prowess, the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) is a regal and formidable falcon species found across a vast range spanning from Eastern Europe to Central Asia. The Saker falcon inhabits a variety of habitats, including grasslands, deserts, and steppes, where it builds its nests on cliffs, trees, or man-made structures.

However, due to habitat loss and degradation, as well as illegal hunting and capture for falconry, the Saker falcon's population has faced a decline in recent years. As a result, the species is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

When it comes to hunting and feeding behavior, the Saker falcon primarily preys on small to medium-sized birds such as pigeons, ducks, and partridges. It uses its exceptional speed and agility to pursue its prey in mid-air, often engaging in high-speed chases and aerial acrobatics. Once caught, the Saker falcon swiftly dispatches its prey with its sharp talons and consumes it on the ground or in flight.

This falcon is also known for caching excess food, storing it for later consumption. Its hunting and feeding behaviors are essential for its survival and play a crucial role in maintaining the delicate balance of its ecosystem.


magical wizard named merlin

The Saker falcon's aerial prowess and hunting abilities are matched by another fascinating falcon species known as the Merlin (Falco columbarius). The Merlin is a small falcon found in various habitats across North America, Europe, and Asia. They prefer open areas such as grasslands, marshes, and tundra, but can also be found in forested regions.

When it comes to diet, the Merlin primarily preys on small birds, such as sparrows, finches, and warblers. They are known for their fast and agile flight, allowing them to chase and capture their prey in mid-air. Unlike larger falcons, the Merlin relies on speed and maneuverability rather than brute force to catch its food.

Merlins employ various hunting techniques, including low-level hunting and aerial pursuit. In low-level hunting, they use the element of surprise, flying fast and close to the ground to catch their prey off guard. During aerial pursuit, they engage in high-speed chases, often reaching impressive speeds. These hunting strategies, combined with their adaptability to different habitats, make Merlins a remarkable and successful species of falcon.

Prairie Falcon

bird of the grasslands

Prairie Falcons (Falco mexicanus) are a species of falcon that can be found inhabiting the vast prairies and grasslands of North America. These medium-sized raptors have distinct features that enable them to thrive in their unique habitat.

Prairie Falcon: Habitat and Hunting Behavior

Prairie falcons prefer open landscapes, such as plains, deserts, and grasslands, where they can easily spot their prey from the air. They build their nests on cliffs or rocky outcrops, providing them with a vantage point to survey their surroundings. Known for their exceptional hunting skills, prairie falcons primarily feed on small to medium-sized birds, rodents, and insects. They use their sharp eyesight and impressive speed to pursue and capture their prey in mid-air or during a steep dive.

Conservation Status and Threats

The conservation status of prairie falcons is currently listed as "Least Concern" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). However, they face some threats to their population. Habitat loss due to agricultural expansion and urban development poses a significant challenge for these birds. Additionally, disturbance and disturbance from human activities, such as rock climbing near their nesting sites, can disrupt their breeding success. Conservation efforts, including habitat preservation and management, are crucial to ensuring the continued survival of the prairie falcon population.

Conservation Status Threats
Least Concern Habitat loss due to agricultural expansion and urban development
Disturbance and disturbance from human activities, such as rock climbing near nesting sites

Lanner Falcon

fast and agile falcon

Moving on to another fascinating species of falcon, the Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus) exhibits distinct characteristics that allow it to thrive in its specific environment.

The Lanner falcon is a medium-sized bird known for its agile flight and impressive hunting abilities. Found in various habitats, including open grasslands, savannas, and rocky cliffs, the Lanner falcon is a versatile predator. It primarily preys on small to medium-sized birds, such as pigeons, doves, and waterfowl, but also hunts rodents and insects. With its powerful wings and sharp vision, it can reach incredible speeds during flight, enabling it to catch its prey with precision.

However, despite their adaptability, Lanner falcons face certain conservation concerns. Habitat loss and illegal hunting pose significant threats to their populations. As a result, efforts are being made to protect and conserve these magnificent birds to ensure their long-term survival.

Aplomado Falcon

graceful falcon with striped plumage

The Aplomado Falcon (Falco femoralis) is a striking bird of prey with unique characteristics that set it apart in the falcon family. Known for its slender body and long, pointed wings, the Aplomado Falcon is a formidable hunter.

This species is found in open grasslands, savannas, and deserts of the Americas, from the southern United States to Argentina. Its preferred habitat consists of open areas with scattered trees or cacti, which provide suitable perches for hunting.

The Aplomado Falcon is known for its agile flight and remarkable hunting behavior. It is a highly skilled aerial predator, capable of capturing prey on the wing. Its diet mainly consists of small birds, insects, and rodents.

With its remarkable hunting prowess and specialized habitat preferences, the Aplomado Falcon stands out as a remarkable species in the falcon family.

Barbary Falcon

fast and agile falcon

Continuing our exploration of falcon species, we now turn our attention to the Barbary Falcon (Falco pelegrinoides), a remarkable bird of prey that exhibits distinct characteristics within the falcon family.

The Barbary Falcon, also known as the North African peregrine falcon, is predominantly found in the arid and desert regions of North Africa and the Middle East. Its preferred habitat includes rocky cliffs, high mountain ranges, and open grasslands. This species is well adapted to these harsh environments, with its powerful flight and incredible speed, reaching up to 240 km/h (150 mph) during hunting dives.

Efforts to conserve the Barbary Falcon have been implemented due to its declining population. These conservation initiatives focus on protecting its natural habitat, reducing human disturbance, and implementing captive breeding programs to ensure its survival. The Barbary Falcon's conservation status is currently listed as Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), highlighting the importance of ongoing conservation efforts.

Barbary Falcon
Scientific name Falco pelegrinoides
Habitat Arid and desert regions of North Africa and the Middle East
Conservation status Near Threatened

The Barbary Falcon is a fascinating and majestic bird, and by understanding its habitat and supporting conservation efforts, we can contribute to the preservation of this remarkable species for future generations.

Red-footed Falcon

small falcon with red feet

The Red-footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus) is a small, migratory bird of prey that displays distinctive features within the falconidae family. This species is known for its striking appearance, with adult males having a bluish-gray plumage, while females and juveniles exhibit a darker brown coloration. As the name suggests, the Red-footed Falcon is characterized by its red legs and feet, which further add to its unique appearance.

In terms of behavioral patterns, these falcons are highly social and often form small colonies during the breeding season. They are known to engage in aerial acrobatics, performing impressive diving and swooping maneuvers to catch their prey, which primarily consists of insects, small birds, and rodents.

The Red-footed Falcon faces several conservation challenges, primarily due to habitat loss and degradation. Their breeding grounds are threatened by the destruction of wetlands and the conversion of grasslands into agricultural areas. Additionally, these birds also face risks during their long-distance migrations, including hunting and the loss of stopover sites.

Consequently, the Red-footed Falcon is listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, highlighting the need for conservation efforts to protect their populations and habitats.

Eleonora's Falcon

raptor of the mediterranean

Eleonora's Falcon (Falco eleonorae) is a medium-sized bird of prey known for its unique breeding behavior and specialized diet. These falcons have an interesting migration pattern, as they breed on small Mediterranean islands during the summer and then migrate to wintering grounds in Madagascar and eastern Africa. This long-distance migration is undertaken by both adult falcons and their young, making it a remarkable phenomenon.

When it comes to hunting techniques, Eleonora's Falcons are known for their aerial hunting skills. They primarily feed on migrating birds, capturing them in mid-flight. This unique hunting behavior is closely linked to their breeding strategy, as the falcons time their breeding to coincide with the autumn bird migration. By doing so, they are able to take advantage of the abundance of prey available during this time.

To further understand the characteristics and habits of Eleonora's Falcon, refer to the table below:

Characteristics Description
Scientific Name Falco eleonorae
Size Medium-sized
Breeding Behavior Unique
Diet Specialized, primarily migratory birds

Amur Falcon

migratory raptor in asia

The Amur Falcon (Falco amurensis) is a small bird of prey known for its impressive migratory journey and diverse feeding habits. These falcons breed in parts of eastern Asia, primarily in northeastern China and southeastern Russia, and migrate to southern Africa during the non-breeding season.

Their migration patterns are truly remarkable, covering a distance of around 20,000 kilometers each way. During their journey, Amur Falcons rely on a variety of food sources, including insects, small birds, and bats.

However, their population has been threatened due to illegal hunting and habitat destruction. In response, conservation efforts have been implemented to protect these birds, focusing on raising awareness, enforcing regulations, and preserving their breeding and stopover sites.

These efforts have played a crucial role in ensuring the survival of the Amur Falcon and highlighting the importance of conserving migratory species.

Bat Falcon

small falcon with bat like appearance

During their migratory journey, the Amur Falcons' diverse feeding habits include preying on small birds and insects, while the Bat Falcon (Falco rufigularis) specializes in hunting bats.

The Bat Falcon is a medium-sized bird of prey found primarily in the Americas. It is known for its distinctive black and white plumage, with a dark crown and facial markings.

This falcon species has a unique hunting behavior, as it spends a significant amount of time perched on high vantage points, such as tall trees or cliffs, waiting for bats to emerge at dusk or dawn. Once spotted, the Bat Falcon swoops down with incredible speed and agility to capture its prey mid-air.

The Bat Falcon is commonly found in a range of habitats, including tropical rainforests, savannas, and open woodlands. Its habitat distribution spans from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, making it a widespread species in the region.

Orange-breasted Falcon

endangered falcon in belize

The Orange-breasted Falcon (Falco deiroleucus) is a large, majestic bird of prey native to the forests and savannas of Central and South America. This species is known for its striking appearance, with a bright orange breast contrasting against its dark plumage. The conservation status of the Orange-breasted Falcon is listed as near threatened due to habitat loss and illegal hunting.

To better understand the behavior and habitat of this magnificent bird, refer to the table below:

Behavior Habitat
Solitary hunter Forests
Nesting on cliffs Savannas
Agile and acrobatic Rocky outcrops
Preys on small birds Dense vegetation

The Orange-breasted Falcon is known for its solitary hunting behavior, often perching on rocky outcrops in forests and savannas. It builds its nests on cliffs, where it can have a clear view of its surroundings. This species is agile and acrobatic, using its speed and maneuverability to catch small birds in dense vegetation.

Conservation efforts are focused on protecting the Orange-breasted Falcon's habitat and raising awareness about the importance of this species. By preserving their natural environment, we can ensure the survival of this magnificent bird for future generations to admire.

Peregrine Falcon (Shaheen Subspecies)

rare shaheen peregrine falcon

A notable subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon, known as the Shaheen, presents distinctive characteristics and a remarkable range of habitats. The Shaheen Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinator) is found across the Indian subcontinent, from the foothills of the Himalayas to the deserts of Rajasthan. This subspecies is known for its smaller size and darker plumage compared to other Peregrine Falcon subspecies.

Peregrine falcon conservation efforts have focused on protecting the Shaheen population due to its declining numbers. The loss of suitable hunting grounds and the use of pesticides have contributed to the decline. In response, conservation organizations have worked to restore and protect habitats, as well as educate local communities about the importance of conserving these birds.

Shaheen falcons are skilled hunters, utilizing various hunting techniques depending on their preferred prey. They are known for their remarkable speed and agility in flight, often reaching speeds of over 240 miles per hour during hunting dives. Their hunting techniques include aerial stoops, where they dive from great heights to catch their prey, as well as low-level flights to surprise and capture birds in mid-air.

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