Top 15 Types Of Birds In Montana (with Photos)

Montana, known for its vast landscapes and natural beauty, is also home to a diverse array of bird species. From the majestic Bald Eagle soaring through the skies to the vibrant Western Bluebird perched on a branch, these feathered creatures captivate the attention of both avid birdwatchers and casual observers alike.

But the avian wonders of Montana do not end there. In this discussion, we will explore the intriguing lives and unique characteristics of some of the other remarkable bird species that grace the skies of this captivating state.

Prepare to be amazed by the rich tapestry of Montana's avian inhabitants, as we embark on a journey to uncover the hidden secrets of their existence.

Bald Eagle

national bird of america

The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a majestic bird of prey found in the state of Montana, known for its distinctive white head and impressive wingspan. This iconic species primarily inhabits areas near water bodies, such as lakes, rivers, and coastal regions. The Bald Eagle's habitat includes large trees near these water sources, which provide suitable nesting sites for the bird. As a predator, this species exhibits a wide range of hunting behaviors, including swooping down from great heights to catch fish or scavenging for carrion.

Conservation efforts have been instrumental in the recovery of the Bald Eagle's population. Due to habitat destruction, pollution, and hunting, this species faced a significant decline in the past. However, through various conservation initiatives, including the banning of harmful pesticides and the establishment of protected areas, the Bald Eagle population has rebounded. Today, the species is no longer listed as endangered and has experienced a positive population trend.

These conservation efforts have ensured the continued survival and thriving of this magnificent bird in the state of Montana.

Western Bluebird

colorful bird found in western regions

Found in the state of Montana, the Western Bluebird (Sialia mexicana) is a small, colorful songbird known for its vibrant plumage and melodious songs. The Western Bluebird primarily inhabits open woodlands, including pine forests, oak savannas, and mixed coniferous forests. It favors areas with scattered trees and shrubs, as they provide suitable nesting sites and foraging opportunities.

This species can also be found in agricultural areas, orchards, and urban parks. The Western Bluebird's diet consists mainly of insects, including beetles, grasshoppers, caterpillars, and spiders. During winter, when insects are scarce, they will supplement their diet with fruits and berries.

Western Bluebirds are cavity nesters and often rely on tree cavities or nest boxes for breeding. They are territorial birds, defending their nesting sites and foraging areas from other bluebirds and small songbirds.

American Robin

common north american songbird

Continuing our exploration of Montana's avian species, we now turn our attention to the American Robin (Turdus migratorius), a migratory songbird commonly found in the state. The American Robin is known for its distinctive red breast and melodic song, which can be heard throughout Montana during the spring and summer months.

American Robins are highly migratory birds, with individuals moving south during the winter and returning to their breeding grounds in the spring. These migration patterns are influenced by factors such as food availability and climate. During migration, American Robins often gather in large flocks, providing a spectacular sight as they fly in unison.

In terms of nesting habits, American Robins typically build their nests in trees, shrubs, or man-made structures such as eaves or window ledges. The nests are made from twigs, grass, and mud, and are lined with soft materials such as feathers or grass. The female robin is responsible for constructing the nest, while the male helps gather materials. Once the nest is built, the female lays a clutch of blue eggs, which she incubates for about two weeks until they hatch.

Mountain Bluebird

vibrant blue bird species

With its vibrant blue plumage and graceful flight, the Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides) is a captivating sight in the landscapes of Montana. These migratory birds are known for their long-distance travels, as they breed in the northern regions of North America and migrate to the southern parts of the United States during the winter. Mountain Bluebirds are part of the thrush family and are easily identified by their blue color, white underparts, and slender bodies.

Migration patterns play a crucial role in the survival of Mountain Bluebirds, as they rely on suitable habitats and food sources during their journeys. Conservation efforts for Mountain Bluebirds focus on preserving their breeding grounds, providing nest boxes, and promoting the availability of suitable food, such as insects and berries. These efforts aim to maintain healthy populations and ensure the continued presence of these magnificent birds in the Montana landscapes.


bird of prey with wings

The Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), also known as the fish eagle, is a large raptor species that can be found in the landscapes of Montana. Ospreys are known for their unique nesting habits and impressive migratory patterns.

These birds prefer to build their nests in tall trees near bodies of water, such as rivers and lakes. The nests are made of sticks and lined with softer materials such as moss and grass. Ospreys are known to return to the same nesting site year after year, adding new material to their nests each breeding season.

In terms of migratory patterns, Ospreys are highly migratory birds. They travel long distances, often crossing continents, during their annual migrations. These migrations are influenced by seasonal changes and the availability of food resources. Ospreys in Montana typically migrate south to Central and South America during the winter months, where they can find abundant fish populations to sustain them.

Great Horned Owl

nocturnal predator with distinctive feathers

The Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus), a dominant nocturnal predator, is a fascinating avian species found in the diverse habitats of Montana. This large owl species is known for its distinctive features, including prominent feathered ear tufts or 'horns' that give it its name.

With a wingspan of up to 5 feet and a weight of around 3-4 pounds, the great horned owl is a formidable predator capable of hunting a wide range of prey, from small mammals to other birds.

Its habitat includes forests, woodlands, and open grasslands, making it adaptable to various environments in Montana. The great horned owl's exceptional vision, powerful talons, and silent flight make it an efficient hunter, allowing it to thrive in the ecosystems of Montana.

Red-tailed Hawk

majestic bird of prey

Adapting to various habitats in Montana, the Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) emerges as another captivating bird species following the Great Horned Owl. This species is known for its impressive size, with a wingspan of up to 4 feet and a length of around 20 inches. Red-tailed Hawks can be found throughout Montana, from open grasslands to forests and even urban areas. They primarily feed on small mammals, such as mice, voles, and rabbits, but they are opportunistic hunters and will also prey on birds and reptiles.

Red-tailed Hawks are not migratory, but they do exhibit some seasonal movements. During the breeding season, which occurs from March to July, they build their nests in tall trees or on cliffs. The female lays 2-3 eggs and both parents participate in incubation and raising the chicks. These hawks are territorial and will defend their nesting sites vigorously. In autumn, they may engage in short-distance movements to find more abundant food sources.

To summarize, the Red-tailed Hawk is a versatile bird species that can adapt to various habitats in Montana. Its diet consists primarily of small mammals, and it exhibits some seasonal movements but is not a long-distance migrator. During the breeding season, they build nests and both parents participate in raising the chicks.

Western Meadowlark

beautiful bird with melodious song

With its vibrant yellow plumage and melodious song, the Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) is a distinctive and enchanting bird species found throughout the diverse landscapes of Montana.

This medium-sized songbird measures about 8.5 to 11 inches in length and possesses a stout bill, long tail, and black V-shaped breast pattern.

The Western Meadowlark is commonly found in grasslands, prairies, and agricultural fields, where it forages for insects, seeds, and berries. Its behavior includes singing from elevated perches, engaging in courtship displays, and building cup-shaped nests on the ground.

However, the Western Meadowlark faces several threats, including habitat loss due to urbanization and agriculture, invasive species, and climate change.

Conservation efforts such as land management practices, protection of grassland habitats, and public awareness campaigns aim to preserve the Western Meadowlark's population and its crucial role in the ecosystem.

Northern Goshawk

bird of prey species

As we move our focus from the charming Western Meadowlark, we turn our attention to the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), a formidable and agile raptor that can be found in the diverse landscapes of Montana.

The Northern Goshawk is a large bird of prey known for its robust body and short, broad wings, which enable it to maneuver with great speed and precision through dense forests. This species prefers mature forests with a mix of coniferous and deciduous trees, where it can find suitable nesting sites and prey.

The Northern Goshawk is known for its complex behavioral patterns, including elaborate courtship displays and aggressive territorial defense. Due to habitat loss and fragmentation, habitat conservation efforts are crucial to ensuring the survival of this magnificent bird species in Montana.

Clark's Nutcracker

bird species in north america

The Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) is a highly specialized and intelligent bird species found in the diverse landscapes of Montana. This bird exhibits remarkable behavioral adaptations that allow it to thrive in its habitat. One such adaptation is its ability to cache and remember the locations of thousands of seeds. This behavior is crucial for the nutcracker's survival, as it relies heavily on the seeds of pine trees for its diet. The nutcracker's bill is specially designed to extract seeds from cones, and its strong wings enable it to cover long distances in search of food. Habitat preferences of the Clark's Nutcracker include coniferous forests, particularly those with whitebark pine trees. These trees provide an abundant supply of seeds and serve as nesting sites for the nutcracker. Overall, the Clark's Nutcracker is a fascinating bird with unique behavioral adaptations and specific habitat requirements.

Behavioral Adaptations Habitat Preferences
Caching and remembering seed locations Coniferous forests, particularly those with whitebark pine trees
Specialized bill for seed extraction Abundant supply of seeds for diet
Strong wings for covering long distances Nesting sites in coniferous trees
Highly intelligent foraging behavior Diverse landscapes of Montana

Peregrine Falcon

fastest bird in world

A formidable aerial predator, the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) is an exceptional bird species that inhabits the diverse landscapes of Montana. Known for its incredible speed and agility, the Peregrine Falcon is a master of the skies.

When it comes to nesting habits and behavior, these birds prefer to nest on tall cliffs, buildings, or other high structures. They construct their nests, known as eyries, using sticks and other materials.

Peregrine Falcons are also known for their remarkable hunting skills, relying on their sharp vision to spot prey from great distances and then diving at speeds of up to 240 miles per hour to capture it.

In terms of conservation efforts and population trends, the Peregrine Falcon has faced significant challenges in the past. Due to the widespread use of pesticides, particularly DDT, their populations declined drastically in the mid-20th century. However, thanks to successful conservation efforts and the banning of DDT, the population of Peregrine Falcons has made a remarkable recovery.

Today, they are considered a conservation success story, with their numbers steadily increasing. Various organizations, such as the Peregrine Fund, continue to monitor and protect these magnificent birds to ensure their long-term survival in Montana and beyond.

American Goldfinch

bright yellow bird species

After examining the impressive recovery of the Peregrine Falcon population in Montana, it is now crucial to explore the characteristics and behaviors of another fascinating bird species, the American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis).

The American Goldfinch is a small passerine bird that is native to North America. During breeding season, the male American Goldfinch sports a vibrant yellow plumage, while the female displays a more subdued olive-brown coloration.

These birds are known for their unique breeding habits. Unlike most songbirds, they delay breeding until late summer, when thistle and other plants produce abundant seeds for their diet. This late breeding strategy allows the American Goldfinch to take advantage of the peak availability of food resources.

Additionally, the American Goldfinch is a migratory species, with populations from northern regions of Montana migrating south during the winter months. They form flocks and undertake long-distance flights to reach their wintering grounds, primarily in the southern United States and Mexico.

Understanding the breeding habits and migration patterns of the American Goldfinch contributes to our knowledge of its life history and ecological role.

Sage Grouse

endangered bird of west

Sage Grouse, a species of large, ground-dwelling bird native to the sagebrush steppe ecosystems of Montana, play a vital role in the ecological balance of the region. These birds are known for their unique mating rituals, which are a sight to behold.

During the breeding season, male sage grouse gather in communal display grounds known as leks. Here, they engage in elaborate displays, puffing out their chests, fanning their tail feathers, and making deep, resonant sounds to attract females. These rituals are not only a spectacle but also crucial for the continuation of the species.

Due to habitat loss and other factors, sage grouse populations have declined in recent years. As a result, conservation efforts are being made to protect their habitats and ensure their survival. These efforts involve implementing land management practices that promote sagebrush habitat restoration and reducing threats such as invasive species and energy development.

Lewis's Woodpecker

distinctive woodpecker species

Lewis's Woodpecker, a distinctive species of woodpecker found in Montana, is known for its unique appearance and behavior. This medium-sized woodpecker measures about 10-11 inches in length, has a dark greenish-black plumage with a pinkish-red belly, and a gray collar around its neck. It is often recognized by its slow and undulating flight pattern.

Lewis's Woodpecker has specific habitat requirements. It prefers open woodlands, especially those with large dead trees or snags, which provide ample foraging opportunities. These woodpeckers rely on a mix of coniferous and deciduous forests, including pine and oak woodlands, for both nesting and foraging.

When it comes to nesting behavior, Lewis's Woodpecker exhibits interesting traits. They typically nest in tree cavities, especially in dead or decaying trees. Unlike other woodpecker species, they rarely excavate their own nesting cavities but rather rely on natural or abandoned holes. Both males and females take part in nest excavation, incubation, and feeding of the young.

White-crowned Sparrow

migratory songbird with white crown

The White-crowned Sparrow, a common and widely distributed species, can be found in various habitats throughout Montana. This migratory bird is known for its distinct white and black crown stripes, which vary in width and color intensity depending on age and region.

White-crowned Sparrows are known to breed in the northern regions of Montana, where they build cup-shaped nests on the ground or low shrubs. Their breeding season typically occurs from late spring to early summer.

During the winter, these sparrows migrate southwards, with some individuals traveling as far as Mexico. They follow a well-defined migratory pattern, moving from their breeding grounds to their wintering areas and back, often returning to the same locations year after year.

Understanding the breeding habits and migration patterns of the White-crowned Sparrow provides valuable insights into its life cycle and conservation needs.

About the author

I'm Gulshan, a passionate pet enthusiast. Dive into my world where I share tips, stories, and snapshots of my animal adventures. Here, pets are more than just animals; they're heartbeats that enrich our lives. Join our journey!